- Coordinates: 60°05’N, 17°28’E
- Height: 102 m tower
- Base level: 70 m ASL
- Country: Sweden
- InGOS observations: CH4, N2O, SF6, Radon
- Responsible partner: University of Lund (ULUND)
- Responsible PI: Anders Lindroth (Anders.Lindroth@nateko.lu.se)
- Request RNA: access request page
- Website: http://www.icos-sweden.se/SE_norunda.html
The Norunda site is unique since it is one of the few high towers (102 m) located in a forest and with an extensive forested fetch area. It is located only one hour North of the main airport in Sweden, Stockholm-Arlanda. The site has been used since 1994 for studies of exchanges of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), energy and water using micrometeorological methods (EC and gradient). EC fluxes of CO2 were initially (1994-2003) measured at three different levels; 35, 70 and 100 m, and concentrations of CO2, H2O, and air temperature at 12 levels. Since July 2010 Norunda is part of the Swedish ICOS infrastructure aiming at becoming a Class 1 ecosystem as well as a Class 1 atmospheric station within ICOS RI.
Most of the equipment for the ecosystem station has been renewed with the following main characteristics:
- EC flux of CO2, H2O, sensible, and latent heat and momentum at 33 m above ground
- 14-level profile of CO2, H2O, and air temperature
- Incoming and outgoing long- and shortwave radiation, incoming diffuse and direct PAR, outgoing PAR above the forest, and two transects with 8 PAR sensors on the ground
- Four soil profiles with soil heat flux and 5levels of soil temperature and soil moisture
- Bark surface temperature measurements on four trees with 12 measurement points on each tree
- Ground water level
- Precipitation and snow depth
The atmospheric station concentration measurements of CO2, CH4, H2O, and CO using a Picarro analyzer at three different levels (32, 57, 100 m) started in July 2014. Additional equipment for atmospheric measurements will be installed as soon as they become available.
The site has a long tradition of being used by external groups for soil respiration studies, tower measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POP), volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), and airborne LIDAR measurements for mapping of vegetation for modelling purposes etc..
Infrastructure and facilities
The Norunda station is accessible year-round for long as well as for shorter campaigns. The evaluation of TNA proposals will verify that there will be no unwanted interference with existing measurements at the site. There are personnel working permanently at the site that can provide advice and to some degree assistance with installations. The field lab is available for installation of equipment, with access to mains power, internet, telephone etc. A building near the tower hosts lodging facilities for up to five persons. There are also a fully equipped kitchen, shower and toilet facilities available
All ICOS related data collected at the site will be freely available for all users of the facility. Other data can also be made available according to separate agreements.