Grignon station


The Grignon site (48.9 N, 1.95 E) is located at around 40 km west of Paris, France. It consisted in a 20 ha field located on a plateau with a gentle slope towards the north-east and surrounded by gentle valleys. The field is surrounded by other agricultural fields to the south and west and by a farm with animal houses to the east. There are roads with substantial traffic surrounding the site at distances from 300 to 900 m. The crop is a maize, winter-wheat, oilseed rape, winter-wheat rotation.  The field receives between 150 and 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1 as cattle slurry and mineral fertilizer. The soil is a silt loam with 19% clay and 71% silt in the top 15 cm, organic carbon content is around 20 g C kg-1 (dry soil) and pH (in water) is around 7.6. The bulk density is 1.3 g m-3. The soil is much deeper to the south-west where it reaches more than 1 m than to the north-east where its depth is less than 0.6 m.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes have been measured by eddy covariances since 2005 and where soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes have been measured by auto-chambers from 2006-2009. Soil N2O, CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes are measured by static chambers since 2010. The soil water content and mineral nitrogen content is measured monthly, while meteorological data are measured half-hourly. Soil water nitrogen and carbon content are also measured with soil water samplers. The wet-only deposition of nitrogen compounds is also measured while atmospheric concentrations of nitrogenous gaseous and aerosol compounds are measured monthly with denuder and filter pack techniques. Additionally atmospheric concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and NH3 are measured half hourly. The crop height and leaf area index is measured at critical growing periods.

Infrastructure and facilities

  • The crop The site is equipped with a fast flow heated sampling line which allows additional anlaysers to be plugged in for eddy covariance or concentration measurement campaign.
  • Visiting researchers will benefit from the ongoing measurements on soil and plants for interpreting their own measurements.
  • The site is connected to the internet via a satellite connection.
  • Developments can be made for including any anlysers in the eddy covariance acquisition software and eddy covariance flux calculations can be explained by INRA.

References based on Grignon observations

  • Loubet, B., Decuq, C., Personne, E., Massad, R.S., Flechard, C., Fanucci, O., Mascher, N., Gueudet, J.C., Masson, S., Durand, B., Genermont, S., Fauvel, Y. and Cellier, P., 2012. Investigating the stomatal, cuticular and soil ammonia fluxes over a growing tritical crop under high acidic loads. Biogeosciences, 9(4): 1537-1552.
  • Loubet, B., Laville, P., Lehuger, S., Larmanou, E., Flechard, C., Mascher, N., Génermont, S., Roche, R., Ferrara, R.M., Stella, P., Personne, E., Durand, B., Decuq, C., Flura, D., Masson, S., Fanucci, O., Rampon, J.-N., Siemens, J., Kindler, R., Schrumpf, M., Gabriele, B. and Cellier, P., 2011. Carbon, nitrogen and Greenhouse gases budgets over a four years crop rotation In northern France. Plant and Soil, 343(1-2): 109-137.
  • Laville, P., Flura, D., Gabrielle, B., Loubet, B., Fanucci, O., Rolland, M.N. and Cellier, P., 2009. Characterisation of soil emissions of nitric oxide at field and laboratory scale using high resolution method. Atmos. Environ., 43(16): 2648-2658.
  • Laville, P., Lehuger, S., Loubet, B., Chaumartin, F. and Cellier, P., 2011. Effect of management, climate and soil conditions on N2O and NO emissions from an arable crop rotation using high temporal resolution measurements. Agric. For. Meteorol., 151(2): 228-240.
  • Stella, P., Loubet, B., Lamaud, E., Laville, P. and Cellier, P., 2011. Ozone deposition onto bare soil: a new parameterisation. Agric. For. Meteorol., 151(6): 669-681.
  • Stella, P., Loubet, B., Laville, P., Lamaud, E., Cazaunau, M., Laufs, S., Bernard, F., Grosselin, B., Mascher, N., Kurtenbach, R., Mellouki, A., Kleffmann, J. and Cellier, P., 2012. Comparison of methods for the determination of NO-O3-NO2 fluxes and chemical interactions over a bare soil. Atmospheric Measurement and Techniques(5): 1241–1257.
  • Stella, P., Personne, E., Lamaud, E., Loubet, B., Trebs, I. and Cellier, P., 2013. Assessment of the total, stomatal, cuticular, and soil 2 year ozone budgets of an agricultural field with winter wheat and maize crops. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 118(3): 1120-1132.
  • Stella, P., Personne, E., Loubet, B., Lamaud, E., Ceschia, E., Bonnefond, J.M., Beziat, P., Keravec, P., Mascher, N., Irvine, M. and Cellier, P., 2011. Predicting and partitioning ozone fluxes to maize crops from sowing to harvest: the Surfatm-O3 model. Biogeosciences, 8: 2869-2886.
  • Lehuger, S., Gabrielle, B., Cellier, P., Loubet, B., Roche, R., Béziat, P., Ceschia, E. and Wattenbach, M., 2010. Predicting the net carbon exchanges of crop rotations in Europe with an agro-ecosystem model. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 139(3): 384-395.
  • Lehuger, S., Gabrielle, B.t., Laville, P., Lamboni, M., Loubet, B. and Cellier, P., 2011. Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe. Agric. For. Meteorol., 151(12): 1654-1671.